Disclaimer: Check the date! This post was written way back in 2008. If there are technical things in here, they may be outdated, or there may be better ways to do them by now. You've been warned.
Continuing our thread on tools, we’re now going to have a look at setting up a simple test server environment.
As I explained last time, I typically develop on a Windows and Linux, so I prefer a tool that works well on both platforms. Coming from a Java development background, there is one tool that meets this requirement, and more; and as you may or may not know, works with more than just Java. That tool is of course, the Eclipse Framework, a Java-based development platform.
Start off by downloading the latest version of the Eclipse Framework, at the time of this writing, that was 3.2.2. To install it, simply unzip it to your hard drive; to make your life easier, drop it in the root of a drive (i.e. c:\\). (Make sure you have a JDK/JRE installed, if you don’t, grab the latest from Sun.) Once installed, start it up by running eclipse.exe (just press OK at the Workspace Launcher prompt for now) and go directly to the Help > Software Updates > Find and Install... menu. Select the Search for new features to install radio button and press Next >. Check the box to search the Callisto Discovery Site and press Finished. On the next screen, expand the Callisto Discovery Site node, and then expand the Web and J2EE Development node. Check the box for the following nodes:
- Graphical Editors and Frameworks
- Graphical Editing Framework
- Models and Model Development
- Eclipse Modeling Framework (EMF) Runtime + End-User Tools
- XML Schema Infoset Model (XSD) Runtime + End-User Tools
- Java EMF Model
- Web and J2EE Development *Web Standard Tools (WST) Project
Read and accept the license agreements and press Next >. Press the Finish button, and let it do its thing. If you receive a Verification window, press the Install All button. When prompted to restart Eclipse, select cancel, and close Eclipse. Congratulations, Eclipse is installed and now we’re ready to install Apache HTTP Server.
You may be wondering why it’s necessary to install an HTTP server when you can open an HTML file directly from the file system in most browsers. The simple answer is because this is a development environment and the code you produce locally should run on the server without modification. With some site file system layouts, paths, such as those to images or stylesheets, may be different on the server compared to your local machine, especially if using URL rewriting techniques. As a benefit for more advanced users, you can also configure apache to run PHP, Perl, or the server side language of your choice. Now, back to our tutorial.
First, download the latest version of Apache. (We’re assuming you’re on Windows here, if you’re using an alternative OS, this exercise is left to you…) At the time of this writing, the best version is 2.2.4 and Win32 Binary (MSI Installer) is probably the easiest to deal with. After it’s downloaded, run the installer. The install process is pretty standard; for server information you probably want to use localhost for your Network Domain, unless your desktop has a fully qualified domain name, and your machine name for Server Name, on the Server Information screen. From that point, the Typical install will probably do just fine. When it’s finished, Apache will be conveniently started, and you’ll be ready to move on. To test your result, load up a browser and check out: http://localhost/; if it worked, your browser will display an oh-so-descriptive page stating “It works!” Now that you have a working web server, let’s create a convenient shortcut to open Eclipse in the htdocs directory of Apache.
Browse to your Eclipse install directory (probably something like: c:\\eclipse) and right-click on eclipse.exe. Choose Create Shortcut from the context menu. Rename it to “Apache HTTP Server Workspace” and drag it someplace convenient (like your desktop.) Right click on the Shortcut and change the Target field to look something like this: C:\\eclipse\\eclipse.exe -data "C:\\Program Files\\Apache Software Foundation\\Apache2.2\\htdocs", where the italic text is replaced by your Eclipse install directory and Apache install directory respectively. Press OK to save your changes. Now start up Eclipse by running your new shortcut, and you should not be prompted to choose a Workspace. Congratulations, Eclipse is now configured, now let’s get a project setup and give a quick tour of the Eclipse functionality.
To clear the Welcome screen, press the “X” on the Welcome tab at the top of the screen. By default, you’ll be setup in the Java Perspective, this won’t be of much help unless you’re a Java developer, so choose the Window > Open Perspective > Other... menu. Choose the Resource perspective from the list and press OK. The screen layout will change and should now show the Navigator, Outline, and Tasks views (counter-clockwise from upper left.) Right click on the Navigator view, and select New > Project... from the context menu. From the Wizards tree, expand Web, and select Static Web Project and press the Next > button. In the project name box, type an appropriate name for your current project, in this example we’ll use demo, and press Finish. A new folder will appear in the Navigator view and inside of it will be a variety of folders and files, don’t worry too much about any of them, but you can get rid of the “WebContent” directory. This directory is now a subdirectory off of your localhost root directory (i.e. http://localhost/demo/.) Just to verify, create a new HTML document named index.html (Hint: try the New context menu off of the “demo” folder in the Navigator view view again) and paste the HTML from my second article into that file. Next, load it up and the server and inspect your handy work! (Try: http://localhost/demo/, it’s an oh-so-exciting blank page with a title. Hooray!)
That’s it! In my next article, I’ll take a look at setting up a simple directory structure and making more than just an empty web page.